FUTURE (8) WILL/ SHALL , going to... and present progressive (advanced points)

Internationally , will is now the standard choice for expressing future plans and expectations. However, in first-person questions shall is often used to express politeness, and in legal statements, shall is used with a 3rd-person subject for stating requirements.
In practice, many speakers don’t commonly follow the traditional rule when using will and shall to express futurity. They don’t differentiate will/ shall and the present forms (especially going to ...) These verbs when used as future markers are largely interchangeable, as in:


Will I play goalkeeper in the next game?(question about the future situation; no clear plans have been made)
Am I going to play goalkeeper in the next game?
What are you doing this Friday evening?
What will you do this Friday evening?
What are you going to do this Friday evening?

On one hand, both going to...and stressed will can express a strong determination, as in:


I’m going to pass this bar exams this time! I really will pass this bar exam!
I’ m going to scale Mt. Everest. I will scale Mt. Everest!
I’m going to keep on asking her out until she says ,”Yes”. I will keep on asking her out until she says. “Yes”.

In cases like these, the different forms are all acceptable, and it is only a matter of choice.

2 official arrangements
Will is often used, rather than the present forms, in giving information about impersonal, fixed arrangements-

They are visiting our country this month.

The President and his Cabinet will visit Thailand on Monday. They will meet the King on Wednesday and then the President will talk to the Press on Thursday.

3 predictions as orders

Predictions can be used as a way of giving orders instead of telling somebody to do something. The speaker just says firmly that it will happen. This is common in military - style orders, as in:


Your special forces will land on the desert at 23:00 tonight.
The plane’s landing now. All male passengers will disembark after every one else has gone down.
Your final recipe will use seafoods and the challenge starts right now

4 different meanings of Will you....?

With a verb referring to a state, will you...? asks for information, as in:

Will you be on time for the program tomorrow?
Will you be healthy enough to take the long trip next month?

With a verb referring to an action, will you...? usually introduces an order or a request, as in:

Will you please switch on the TV to CNN?
Will you cut-up this large chicken for me , please?
Will you please walk faster....we’re very late now!

5 expressing certainty about the present or past
When we want to talk about something we are sure about, we can use the verb will, as in:

That will be Samuel at the door. He said he’ll be here at three.
We need to demonstrate to the audience exactly how to do this – they won’t be able to do this right.

Will have....can express similar ideas about the past, as in:

As you will have known, the Japanese companies spend so much on entertaining clients.
It’s useless exporting our coconut oil to Europe now, other Asian countries will have done more.

6 obligation : shall
In contracts and other legal documents, shall is often used with 3rd person subjects to refer to obligations and duties, as in:

The system shall handle 100 widgets per second.
The court sheriff shall confiscate all properties in the home of the accused.

In normal usage, we prefer will, must or should to express ideas of this kind, as in:

The people must vote for the right candidate so there will be real development in this country.
Our forests should be protected and preserved, otherwise we will lose them in a short time.
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