6 personal and relative pronouns

When we use the relative pronouns, we no longer need to use the personal pronouns to mean the same, as in:

a) The boy 'who' works hard will win. ( Not The boy who he works .....)
b) The guitar 'that' you lent Alex had been sold. (Not The guitar that
c) Peggy is the cat 'which' was stolen yesterday.(Not ...the cat
d) He is the salesman 'who' sold the excellent machine.
e) I want to see the dog 'which' trampled on the flowers.

7 'it' referring to 'nothing', the situation etc.

'It' not only refers to names of particular things. We can also use it to refer to indefinite pronouns like 'nothing', 'anything', 'everything'.


a) Everything's done well now, isn't 'it'?
b) During Typhoon Ruby, nothing else except the wind was fiercely blowing, wasn't it?
c) Anything can be thought of, can't it?
d) Something has to be done. 'It's' important.
e) Everything is now prepared, isn't 'it'?

It can also refer to a whole fact, event, or situation


a) Typhoon Ruby was violent and slow-moving; 'it' cost many families to lose their homes.
b) The wind was so strong; 'it' roared like a fleet of jet planes.
c) Wasn't 'it' horrible!
d) I never would want 'it' to happen again!

8 'it' as 'empty' subject : It's ten o'clock.

We use 'it' as a meaningless subject with expressions that refer to time, weather, temperature or distances.


a) It's Christmas Day! Santa's coming again.
b) It's so hot today!
c) It snowed all day and all night.
d) It's so far away to just
e) It's another year again.

9 'it' used to identify

We use 'it' for a person when we are identifying him or her


a) Who's got number 10? It's Ellen Burns.
b) Who stole the cookie from the cookie jar? 'It's' Benjie!
c) Is that our new boss? No, 'it' isn't.
d) Hi! 'It's' Carrey speaking.
e) 'It's' her mother who makes these delicious cakes, isn't 'it'?

10 'we women', 'you men'

The pronouns 'we' and 'you'(plural) ,- but not other personal pronouns- can be put directly before nouns.


a) We students are demanding that the administration give us a longer lunch break.
b) You students are demanding too much.
c) We laborers are doing this strike for fair labor practices.
d) You children must study hard in order to achieve more.
e) We voters should be more careful to vote for the right candidate for the right position.
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