Sentence Structure (5)

1. Fronting
We usually begin sentences with their grammatical subject. But sometimes we move things to the front for emphasis.
- Crazy, that driver. (More emphatic than 'That driver is crazy.')
Moving something to the beginning of a sentence in this way is called 'fronting'. Fronting is very common in informal speech. The words that are usually fronted are objects and complements.
- A very nice time we had yesterday. (= Yesterday we had a very nice time.)
- Nice people they are! (= They are nice people.)
- Lovely she is! (=She is lovely.)
- People like that I just can't stand.
Question-word clauses are also often fronted.
- How she got the goods through customs I don't understand. (= I don't understand how she got the goods through customs.)
- What I should do now I don't know. (=I don't know what should I do now.)

2. extra emphasis
Fronting words in short sentences can also give them extra emphasis. This happens mostly in speech.
- Strange people they are!
- Last for ever these shoes will.
In a few exclamatory expressions, a noun is fronted before 'that', but this is uncommon in modern English.
- Food that I was!

3. ellipsis
- means bringing a more important word to the front of a clause, in a very informal style, articles, pronouns and auxiliary verbs are often left out.
Example: Postman been? Seen John?
Sometimes ellipsis is used to front a verb or complement, while the subject is put in a 'tag'.
Examples: Likes his beer, Stephen does.
Funny, your brother. Nice day, isn't it?

4. adverbs and adverb particles
Adverbs and adverb particles are often fronted when giving instructions to small children.
Examples: a.Down you come! b. Off we go! c. Out you come! d. Back you go to your study.
Another reason for fronting adverbs is for emphasis.
Example: Now you tell me! (= Why didn't you tell me before?)

5. fronting with as or through
Fronted adjectives and adverbs are possible in a structure with 'as' or 'through'.
Examples: Young as I was, I realized what was happening.
Tired though she was, she went on working.
Fast though she drove, she could not catch them.
Much as I respect his work, I cannot agree with him.
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