SENTENCE STRUCTURE (6): spoken structures and tags

1. Spacing out information
In informal speech, we often 'space out' the different elements of a sentence, giving the listener a little extra time to interpret each part before going on to the next.
Example: Last Wednesday 'it was', I was just going to work...
It's terrible, 'you know', the unemployment down there.

ways of spacing out information: a. separate a subject or object, b. announce it at the front of a sentence, and c. repeat it with a pronoun

'George Best' - now 'he' was a good player.
'This guy' who rang up, 'he's an architect, Well...
'That couple' we met in Berlin, we don't want to send 'them' a card, do we?
'One of my brothers', his wife's a singer, he says...
This does not usually happen with pronoun subjects, but 'me' and 'myself are occasionally detached and fronted.
Example: 'Me', I don't care.; 'Myself', I think you're making a big mistake.
Introducing with "You know" is another common way of separating part of sentence.
- 'You know' Sylvia. Well, she....

2. tags
- means extra words to be put at the end of a complete sentence
They work very hard, 'most of them'.
That's the doorbell, 'I think'.; I don't mind, 'to be honest'.
Announce the subject with a pronoun and put the full subject is a tag.
Example: 'He' hasn't a chance, 'Fred'. 'He' likes his beer, 'John'.
'They're very polite, 'your children'.
Mostly we drop the pronoun at the beginning in sentences like these:
Hasn't a chance, Fred. Likes his beer, John.
Drop the unstressed form of 'be' too.
- Very polite, your children.
- living in the clouds, you lot. Crazy, that driver.
The tag can repeat the verb by using an auxiliary.
(He) hasn't a chance, Fred 'hasn't'.
(He) likes his beer, John 'does'.
(She) really got on my nerves, Sylvia 'did'.

3. emphasizing tags
A tag gives no new information, but simply repeats and emphasizes the subject and verb sometimes.
- You've gone mad, 'you have'.
- I'm getting fed up, 'I am'. He like his beer, 'he does'.
Pronouns are not usually used alone in tags, except for reflexives.
-(I) don't think much of the party, 'myself'.
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