1. "Instead of" as a "Preposition"

- Instead is not used alone as a preposition; we use the two words "instead of".

a) I'll have burger instead of sandwich, please. (wrong - instead sandwich)
b) Can you accompany Jean instead of me tomorrow, please? (wrong - instead me)

- Instead of is not usually followed by an infinitive

a) I stayed home all day instead of meeting my friend. (wrong - instead of (to) go to meet)

2. "Instead of" and "Without"

- Instead suggests that one person, thing or action replaces another.
- Without suggests that one person, thing etc is not together with another.

See comparison:
a) Tomo was invited to the party, but she wa busy, so Mika went instead of her. Mika replaced Tomo.) (wrong - Mika went without him)
Tomo and Mika were invited, but Tomo was busy, so Mika went without him.(Normally, they would have gone together.)

b) She often goes biking instead of going to church.(Biking replaces church.) (wrong - She often goes biking without going to church)
She often goes biking without telling her father.(Biking and telling her father should go together.) (wrong - She often goes biking without telling her father)

2. "Instead"(without of) as an "Adverb"

- Instead (without of) is an adverb. It usually begins or ends a clause.

a) She didn't eat a meal after all. Instead, she ate snacks.
b) Don't go the the party. Come with me to church instead.
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