Infinitive: It's Other Forms

Aside from the basic form of infinitives (to+base verb), they also come in progressive, perfect, and passive forms.

1. Progressive/Continuous Infinitive

Form: (to) be + -ing

Meaning: As it's name suggests, the progressive or continuous infinitive expresses an action or event in progress or happening at the time of speaking.

Examples:
You must be joking.
I'll be heading to New York around this time next month.
At that time, Keshia was confirmed to be staying with her aunt.

2. Perfect Infinitive

Form: (to) have + past participle

Meaning: The perfect infinitive refers to a time in the past before that of the preceding verb.

Examples:
I'm glad to have worked at that company.
Paul must have forgotten about the deadline.
Nick was assumed to have checked out the day before.

3. Passive Infinitive

Form: (to) be + past participle

Meaning: Functions similarly to other passive forms. When used after a noun or be, active and passive connote the same meaning.

Examples:
This meat has to be cooked.
These gates should be shut always.
I am expecting to be offered a promotion.

4. Combinations

Perfect progressive + perfect passive infinitives are usual.

Examples:
You must have been tired working all night.
Jimmy would like to have presented the flowers to the queen.

Progressive/Continuous passive infinitives though acceptable are uncommon.

Examples:
He'd like to be being cheered on every time.
Mr. Yoshi like to be being seated near the window.


Progressive/Continuous perfect passive infinitives are very rare.

Examples:
The tower must have been being put up without any machinery.
Bianca must have been being scolded at that time.


5. Negative Forms

Form: not + infinitive

Meaning: To form the negative infinitive, place not before the to- or zero infinitive.

Examples:
He asked me not to be late.
Elephants ought not to marry mice.
You'd better not smile at the crocodile.

6. To form

a. Used before an infinitive
Form: to + infinitive
Example: He wanted to sleep.

b. Without to
Example: Nancy let Clark answer the phone.

7. Split infinitive

Form: to + adverb + infinitive

Meaning: To form split infinitives, separate "to" and infinitive by inserting adverb between them.

Examples:
He tried to really prove his point.
Jack hopes to easily excel in class.
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