Participles: Active and Passive

Participles may correspond to the active voice (active participles), where the modified noun is taken to represent the agent of the action denoted by the verb; or to the passive voice (passive participles), where the modified noun represents the patient (undergoer) of that action.

1) present participle

The present participle is often used when we want to express an active action.
We generally add -ing to the infinitive of the verb.

Use of the present participle

Progressive/Continuous tense:

He is reading a book.


Reading books is fun.


Look at the reading boy.

2-1) past participle

Participles are words formed from verbs which can be used as adjectives.
Past participle is an action-based description, where the action is completed action.

Use of the past participle

Perfect tenses:

He has forgotten the pencil.
He had forgotten the pencil.

Passive voice

A house is built.
A house was built.


Look at the washed car.
The car washed yesterday is blue.
He had his car washed.

3. Interested and Interesting

Interested (adjective)

showing curiosity or concern about something or someone; having a feeling of interest.


I am interested in sports. (not...I'm interesting in sports.)

She is interested in biology.

Interesting (adjective)

arousing curiosity or interest; holding or catching the attention.
"an interesting debate"


It is such an interesting topic to talk about. (not... an interested topic...)

Swimming is an interesting sports.

He is an interesting person.

4. exceptions: a fallen leaf, an escaped prisoner etc

A few past participles can be used as adjective with active meanings, especially before nouns


trained teachers
broken glass
written instructions
fallen leaves
retired teacher
experienced worker

5. Active past participle: advanced points

some past participles can be used with active meanings, but only with adverb


My children are all grown-up now.

She is a retired person.

My homework will be finished in a few minutes.
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