|1. Present Participle As an object complement|
The present participle can be used as an object complement placed after the object.
|I found a man standing outside in the rain.|
They kept me waiting.
|2. As a subject complement|
The present participle can be used as a subject complement placed after verbs
|The movie was thrilling.|
The tea was invigorating.
The lemon seemed appetizing.
|3. Participles used as adjective phrase|
The present participle can be used as part of an adjective phrase generally put after the noun it qualifies.
|The man standing by the window.|
The woman I’m talking to.
|4. Differences of meaning|
A few participles change their meaninga according to their position. Compare:
|a. An ill-mannered person – meaning a person who has a bad manner|
A person who is ill. – meaning a person who is sick.
b. Sinkhole – meaning a hole in the ground caused by some form of collapse of the surface layer.
Hole in the sink – meaning hole in our sink caused by rust or improper use of it
c. Exchange student - a student from one country received into an institution in another country in exchange for one sent to an institution in the home country of the first
In exchange of something – a barter or trade