Participle after Noun

We can use participle clauses after a noun in the same way as relative clauses. This gives more information about the noun. We sometimes call this a 'reduced relative clause'.


Who was the girl singing Abba's songs?
(Who was the girl who was singing Abba's songs?)

The man wearing a blue tuxedo is a friend of mine.
(The man who is wearing a blue tuxedo is a friend of mine.)

People arriving late will not be allowed to enter.
(People who is arriving late will not be allowed to enter.)

Those books lying on the table were mine.
(Those books which are lying on the table were mine.)

Adverbial clauses

An adverbial clause (or an adverb clause) is a group of words which plays the role of an adverb. (Like all clauses, an adverbial clause will contain a subject and a verb.)


Keep singing until the melody fades.

In a world where there is so much to be done, I felt strongly impressed that there must be something for me to do.

Once they saw the car coming, the birds flew away from the street.

Supposing your son took the car without permission, what would your punishment be?

Subjects; misrelated participle

While picking apples from the tree, a snake bit the farmer. (sounds like the snake was picking apples)
While picking apples from the tree, a farmer was bitten by a snake. (The farmer was piciking apples.)

While cooking dinner, the telephone rang. (sounds like the telephone was cooking dinner)
While cooking dinner, Satome heard the telephone ring. (Satome was cooking dinner)

Participle clauses with their own subject

A participle clause can have its own subject


Generally speaking, women are better than men in many ways.

All things considered, we decided to establish the business anyway.

We can use verb + participle and verb + object + participle


They sat talking for hours.

The teacher caught a few students cheating in the exam.
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