6 “us” meaning “me”

The object pronoun “us” may be used instead of “me” in very informal British speech (especially as an indirect object).


Let us see thy kind soul, my Lord, for I am just thy lowly servant.
Show us thy mercy, I beg Thee Lord, for I am a great sinner.

7 Poor you !

“You” can be modified by adjectives in a few informal expressions such as “Poor/ Clever/ Lucky(old) you!
(Occasionally, “me” may also be used.)


Clever you, Alexandra! You easily passed the most difficult university admission exam.
Lucky (old) you, Sheena! You got to be chosen among those who will have lunch with the visiting Pope.
Poor you, Timmy! Does your bruised knee hurt much?

8 you: different singular and plural forms

In standard modern English, “you” is used for both singular and plural subjects. However, separate forms exist in certain varieties of English. Some speakers in Yorkshire use “thu” or “tha” as a singular subject and “thee” as a singular object form. Some Irish and Scottish dialects have separate plural form as “ye”, “youse” or “yiz” Many Americans (and increasingly British people) use “you folks” or “you guys” (to both men and women) as an informal second-person plural.


I brought thee some wine from the pub, fella!
Sorry aren’t tha the new young fella who’s visiting nearby?
“He’ll slap it intae ye!”(means It’s your own fault.)- from Scottish sayings
“Haste ye back.” (= farewell or ‘return soon’)
I bring thee a song that when thou must come.”(from Walt Whitman’s ‘When Lilacs in the Dooryard Last Bloom’d)
Youse, fellas, have to rise above the poverty we’re suffering from!
Bye, guys! Got to go or I’ll never home on time.
Enjoy yourselves, guys! Be on my way...

In southern U. S. speech, there’s a second-person plural form ”you all”(pronounced “y’all”) used instead of “you all” when people wish to sound friendly or intimate; there’s also a possessive “you all’s(pronounced “y’alls).

9 he/she who.....

The structure “he/she who....” (meaning “the person who ....”) is found in older literature.


He who made all things by His word is our Lord God.
She who calls you faithful and will accomplish her tasks is a good wife.
Happy is he who dwells in the house of the Lord.

But this is very unusual in modern English. It is more commonly acceptable to say:


The person who leaves the room last should turn off the lights. ..or...
Whoever leaves the room last should turn off the lights.

10 politeness

It is considered more polite to use names or noun phrases, rather than the pronouns ‘he, she, or they’ to refer to people who are present.


This gentleman said we could swim in the pool now. ( More polite than ‘He said we could swim....)
The good sweet lady is giving us these native delicacies. ( More polite than..’She is giving us....’)
Shione said you may borrow her diamond necklace, ~ Yes, I got this from my grandma.

However, pronouns need to be used to avoid repetition.


This gentleman said he’s allowing us to swim in the pool now.
Shione said she wants you to borrow her diamond necklace she got from her grandma.

Also, it is considered more polite to mention oneself last in double subjects or objects.


Those boxes under the tree are for Walter , Winnie and me.
The manager requested Sam, Karl and me to do the presentations.
Tammy , you and me are to go on a business travel next month.
My older sister and I received the invitations to our school’s grand reunion this February.
How are you and I going to cross to that island?

11 leaving out personal pronouns

Oftentimes, personal pronouns are needed in the sentence. They cannot usually be left out.


Wanda likes to curl on that couch because it is comfortable. (Not...because is comfortable.)
We feel very grateful to my brother for he helped us build this new house.(Not...for helped us build...)
The foreign tourists appreciated their tour guide as she fluently spoke their own language.

However, in informal speech, subject pronouns and helping verbs are sometimes left out at the beginning of a sentence.


Can’t go along with you now, I’m snowed down in the office.( I can’t go along.....)
Bye for now! Got to go!(= I have to go...)
Got you at last! (= I finally got you...!) It’s been hours since I threw my line to catch you.
Met Frances? Haven’t seen her for a day. (= Have you met Frances? I haven’t seen her....{
Understand? It should be easier to do on your own now,(=Do you understand?...)

We seldom put the pronoun “it” after the verb “know”.


Plane tickets are very expensive during holiday seasons.~ I know...(Not...I know it.)That’s why I bought mine 6 months ago.
Their farmland is so wide it takes days to go around it. ~ Yes, I know....I’ve been there several times.

After certain verbs, ( believe, think, suppose), we use “so” rather than “it”.


Is Buenos Aires the capital of Argentina? I don’t think so. (Not ,,I don’t think it.)
Is December 30 a national holiday? Yes, I believe so. (Not...Yes, I believe it.)
Are we spending the Holy Week at Sabin Resort? I suppose so. (Not...I suppose it.)

And personal pronouns can be dropped after prepositions in descriptive structures with “have” and “with”.


That expensive blouse has sparkling tiny diamonds on(it).
The balikbayan boxes have a lot of chocolate candies in(them).
They found the missing crate without the expensive items in (it).
The election officer opened the ballot box and found the printed document in (it).

Object pronouns are not usually used in infinitive clauses if the object of the infinitive has just been mentioned.


Connie is easy to teach. (Not,,,Connie is easy to teach her.)
The freshly roasted piglet was yet too hot to touch. (Not...too hot to touch it).
The roller coaster was going too fast for me to watch.( watch it.)
The flood water was really flowing too rapidly to swim in.(Not....flowing too rapidly to swim in it.)
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